Mark the centers of each signature to be sewn so they are easier to locate during the sewing process. Find and mark the centers of the signature before the first separated signature and after the last separated signature as well as all the separated signatures.
A punching jig (construction details in a separate post) can be used to achieve consistently placed sewing holes.
Use an awl or needle to punch new sewing holes or to repunch existing holes that may be filled with glue. Use the existing sewing holes whenever possible.
If the spine of the text block is covered with spine lining paper or the
original crash and glue, it can be difficult to pierce through the spine. Apply gentle pressure and rotate the awl or needle-in-a-stick to punch through the paper. A needle can break if too much pressure is used.